accommodations. Adaptations that address the needs of the student by removing the effects of the disability but not altering the performance outcome.
adapted physical education. A physical education program designed to meet the unique needs of an individual with a disability who is unable to fully participate in the general physical education program.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (P.L. 101-336) is the most comprehensive civil rights legislation adopted to prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities. Public and private businesses, state and local government agencies, private entities offering public accommodations and services, transportation and utilities are required to comply with the law. The ADA was signed into law by President George Bush on July 26, 1990, extending civil rights protections to individuals with physical or mental disabilities in the following areas: employment (Title I); public transportation and state and local government services (Title II); public accommodations (Title III); telecommunications (Title IV); miscellaneous (Title V).
assessment continuum. The process of gathering evidence about a student’s progress and level of achievement within the instructional cycle, that is, while learning is happening. Assessments along the continuum can be a combination of formative and summative.
assistive technology. technology used by individuals with disabilities in order to perform functions that might otherwise be difficult or impossible. Can include mobility devices such as walkers and wheelchairs, hardware, software, and peripherals that assist people with disabilities in accessing computers or other information technologies. For example, people with limited hand function may use a keyboard with large keys or a special mouse to operate a computer, people who are blind may use software that reads text on the screen in a computer-generated voice, people with low vision may use software that enlarges screen content, people who are deaf may use a TTY (text telephone), or people with speech impairments may use a device that speaks out loud as they enter text via a keyboard.
athletics. Sports activities conducted outside of the normal school day schedule. Athletics are typically extracurricular, extramural, or intramural, and are not considered part of the regular school curriculum. Student with disabilities cannot be excluded from these activities solely on the basis of their disability.
balance. A skill-related component of fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving
body composition. The proportion of fat-free mass (e.g., muscle, bone, vital organs, and tissues) to fat mass in the body.
body mass index (BMI). A formula used to calculate ratio between height and weight.
broad spectrum heterogeneous groups. Groups of students that include all levels of ability, as opposed to grouping of students with narrower ranges of ability.
cardiovascular endurance. A component of health-related fitness that describes the ability of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles during exercise.
Child Study Team. Team that convenes for the purpose of discussing suspected exceptionalities of students. The team typically consists of the student’s parents and educational professionals serving the child, who convene to develop long- and short-range goals for child’s progress. The child study team and the PPT may be the same, or they may be two different groups with each group having some of the same members. If Child Study and PPT are different groups, the Child Study Team typically meets before any special education testing takes place and serves an advisory function to the PPT.
collaborative consultation. A process for providing services to special education students in which adapted physical education specialists collaborate with regular education staff, general classroom teachers, teachers of special education, and other school professionals and/or paraprofessionals and parents to plan, implement and evaluate interventions carried out in the adapted, regular, modified or specially designed physical education program for the purpose of ensuring each student’s success in the educational system.
competence. Sufficient ability, skill, and knowledge to meet the demands of a particular task.
competencies. What a person must know and is able to do. In the context of physical education, competencies addressed through the Healthy and Balanced Living Curriculum Framework are: personal and academic achievement through development of skills needed to live a healthy and balanced lifestyle; access, evaluate and use information from various sources to achieve overall health and well-being; comprehend concepts related to health and fitness and implement realistic plans for lifelong healthy and balanced living; and make plans and take actions that lead to healthy and balanced living for themselves and for the world around them.
community-based programming. Helping students to make connections with physical activity opportunities in the community outside of school. The PE specialist plays a major role in recognizing opportunities in the community and identifying the skills the student needs to participate successfully. It is recommended that the PE specialist participate in the development of the ITP (individualized transition plan). Once the recreation and leisure activity possibilities in the student’s community have been evaluated, and the student’ interests and capabilities have been assessed, plans can be developed for the student’s participation in and pursuit of physical activities in the wider community outside of the school setting. Of particular focus in the overall assessment are activities that the family can enjoy together.
concomitant delays. Delay in development or learning process that is connected to another or underlying condition
Connecticut Curriculum Framework. Refers to the Healthy and Balanced Living Curriculum Framework for Physical Education, which is based on the national content standards for physical education, and which provides a blueprint for how students can live an active and healthy life. The goal of the Framework is to show the linkages between the components of comprehensive school health education and comprehensive physical education that lead to a healthy and balanced life. The Framework supports students in making connections and applying skills for a lifetime of health and well-being. Four overarching curricular outcomes equip students to live actively and fully in a state of personal, interpersonal and environmental well-being: skills, literacy, concepts and plans, and advocacy. Schools serve children from the Pre-kindergarten level through Grade 12, which represents a continuum of development. The Framework reflects appropriate expectations at the Prekindergarten, Grade 4, Grade 8 and Grade 12 levels that build on one another.
Connecticut Third Generation Physical Fitness Assessment. The Connecticut Physical Fitness Assessment Program includes a variety of health-related physical fitness tests designed to assess muscle strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and cardiovascular fitness. The assessment is administered annually to all students in Grades 4, 6, 8 and 10 in Connecticut schools.
content standards. Define what students should know and be able to do as a result of the physical education program of instruction. Content standards are the foundation of the curriculum. The standards address motor skill performance; applying concepts and strategies; engaging in physical activity; physical fitness; responsible behavior; and benefits of physical activity.
continuum of services. The range of services which must be available to the students of a school district so that they may be served in the least restrictive environment.
contraindicated. Is not advisable, should not be done.
coordination. A skill-related component of fitness that relates to the ability to perform tasks smoothly and accurately.
criterion-referenced assessment. Describes how well a student performs compared with a predetermined and specified standard of performance, as opposed to a norm-referenced assessment where a student’s performance is compared with a normative sample of other students.
cues. Short words, phrases and gestures that describe the correct technique for performing a skill.
developmental stages. Children pass through three stages before they can demonstrate the mature form for a movement or motor skill: initial stage, elementary stage, and mature stage.
developmentally appropriate programs. Developmental appropriateness recognizes age and individual differences among children and includes these differences in instruction plans. Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education is referred to as DAPE.
direct service, direct service provider. Direct service personnel are those professionals identified in the federal laws as having a primary educational responsibility for individuals with disabilities. In addition to the physical educator and adapted physical educator, other professionals provide direct educational service to individuals with disabilities. They include the special educator, a vision specialist working with a blind/visually impaired individual, and a hearing specialist working with a deaf/hearing impaired individual. The 1999 Reauthorization of the IDEA includes the orientation and mobility specialist as a direct service provider.
disability. Defined by the IDEA as autism; deaf-blindness; deafness; developmental delay (3-5 year olds); emotional disturbance; hearing impairment; intellectual disability (mental retardation); multiple disabilities; orthopedic impairment; other health impairment; specific learning disability; speech or language impairment; traumatic brain injury; visual impairment. A student with a disability is one who by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
disabilities of a temporary nature. Include those arising from accidents (e.g. a broken leg) and conditions from which individuals are expected to recover or significantly improve. If the student’s short-term disability interferes with access to physical education, a Section 504 plan may be appropriate.
ED622. Parent Notice of Referral to Determine Eligibility for Special Education and Related Services, includes a description of the tests and procedures the district will use to make a determination for special education eligibility
educational outcomes. Knowledge, abilities, or attitudes students should possess upon completing a given program of instruction. What the curriculum, program and teacher intended for students to know and be able to do as a result of planned instruction and educational experiences.
emerging technology. An emerging technology is one whose science, basic principles and theory are recognized as having useful applications that can meet needs of students, educators and others. An example of an emerging technology that has found common application is the use of heart rate monitors to determine effort in physical education.
emotional health. Generally considered a component of well-being and quality of life, emotional health is defined by how one thinks and feels; one’s ability to cope with situations and life events. Considered a dimension of overall health in combination with physical, social and intellectual health.
energy balance. Balance of calories consumed through eating and drinking compared to calories burned through physical activity.
exergaming. Term used for video games that are also a form of exercise. Exergaming relies on technology that tracks body movement or reaction.
extracurricular activities. Activities that are conducted outside of the normal school curriculum and are typically conducted outside of the normal school day. Examples of extracurricular activities are sports teams and clubs, theater, special interest groups and recreational activities and trips. The CT State Board of Education endorses the following policy regarding opportunities for physical activity before and after school: All elementary, middle and high schools shall offer extracurricular physical activity programs, such as physical activity clubs or intramural programs. All high schools, and middle schools as appropriate, shall offer interscholastic sports programs. Districts shall offer a range of activities that meet the needs, interests and abilities of all students, including boys, girls, students with physical and cognitive disabilities, and students with special health care needs. After-school, child care and enrichment programs shall provide and encourage — verbally and through the provision of space, equipment and activities — daily periods of moderate to vigorous physical activity for all participants.
extended school year (ESY). Services are designed to support a student with a disability as documented under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to maintain the academic, social/behavioral, communication, or other skills that they have learned as part of their Individualized Education Program (IEP). In order for a student to receive ESY services, there must be substantial evidence of regression and recoupment issues during the previous IEP year and/or there is evidence of emerging skills which are often referred to as “breakthrough” skills. The focus of the services provided to the student as part of an ESY program are not upon learning new skills or “catching up” to grade level, but rather to provide practice to maintain previously acquired or learned skills. In some cases a student who has received ESY services previously may not be eligible in future years. Students with certain disabilities (i.e. autism or a severe behavior issue) would qualify for ESY every year.
federal law and state statute. Federal law is defined as a body of law at the highest or national level of a federal government, consisting of a constitution, enacted laws and the court decisions pertaining to them. The federal law of the United States consists of the United States Constitution, laws enacted by Congress, and decisions of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. A statute is a law established by an act of legislature. Statutes are enacted to prescribe conduct, define crimes, appropriate funds, and in general promote the public welfare. In the State of Connecticut, when a bill is passed by the legislature and signed by the governor, it becomes a state statute. When a bill is passed by Congress and signed by the president, it becomes a federal statute.
flexibility. A component of health-related fitness that describes the range of motion at a joint. The ability to move joints of the body through a normal range of motion.
fundamental movement skills. Basic movements that involve the combination of movement patterns of two or more body segments. Locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills are all considered fundamental, as they constitute the basis of specialized movement and manipulative skills.
gym. Abbreviation for gymnasium, a large space used for physical activity and physical education instruction. Euphemistic reference to the subject of physical education as “gym” or gym class, and physical education teachers as “gym teachers” is outdated and disparaging.
health. Optimal well-being that contributes to the quality of life. More than freedom from disease and illness. Optimal health includes high-level mental, social, emotional, spiritual, and physical wellness within the limits of one’s heredity and personal abilities.
health literate. A health literate person is a critical thinker; problem-solver; responsible, productive citizen; self-directed learner; and effective communicator who has developed the skills needed to live a healthy and balanced life; can access, evaluate and use information from various sources to achieve overall wellness; can comprehend concepts related to wellness and implement realistic plans for a lifetime of optimal well-being; and can make plans and take actions that lead to healthy and balanced living for themselves and the world around them.
health-related physical fitness. Consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship to good health: body composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, muscle endurance, and muscle strength.
healthy weight. A body weight that is believed to be maximally healthful for a person, based chiefly on height but modified by factors such as gender, age, build, and degree of muscular development.
higher education. Formal education beyond the secondary (high school) level. A generally accepted definition of higher education is that acquired at a college or university.
inclusion. Placement of students with disabilities in the general education classroom with peers without disabilities.
inclusive environment. An inclusive environment is one that creates a sense of belonging and encourages and supports its members with acceptance of age, gender, ability, culture, and a range of self-identity factors.
individual activity. Physical activities that require only one participant. Examples include weight training, yoga, archery, and jogging.
individualized education plan (IEP). A written document that describes a student’s current level of educational achievement, identifies goals and objectives for the near future, and lists educational services to be provided to meet those goals.
individualized healthcare plan (IHP). Written document that outlines the provision of student healthcare services intended to achieve specific student outcomes. The IHP is developed collaboratively with information from the
family, the student, the student’s healthcare providers, and school staff, as appropriate. The IHP includes medical orders implemented at school. Evaluation identifies progress toward achieving student outcomes. The IHP is reviewed at least annually, updated as needed, and revised as significant changes occur in the student’s health status or medical treatment.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Public Law 105-17. Law that outlines rights and regulations for students with disabilities in the U.S. who require special education. Under the IDEA, all children with disabilities are entitled to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least-Restrictive Environment (LRE), and some are entitled to Early Intervention (EI) and Extended School Year (ESY). The law specifies how schools must provide or deny services, and how parents can ensure that school districts provide needed services for children. The latest revision of this act is IDEA 2004, implemented October 2006.
instructional program. Planned instruction prescribed by a written curriculum with stated goals, and learning objectives and intended outcomes.
intellectual health. Academic knowledge, creativity, general knowledge, and common sense. Intellectual health influences decision-making. In the context of health and wellness, intellectual health requires a balance, maintaining proper nutritional habits and exercising, for example, as essential components to energy levels and development of healthy individuals. Considered a dimension of overall health in combination with emotional, physical, and social health.
intervention. Strategies identified or developed to provide support and instruction to students who are struggling to learn.
least restrictive environment (LRE). Least restrictive environment refers to the IDEA’s mandate that students with disabilities should be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with peers without disabilities. The LRE mandate ensures that schools educate students with disabilities in integrated settings, alongside students with and without disabilities, to the maximum extent appropriate.
locomotor skills. Basic motor skills involving a change of position of the feet and/or a change of direction of the body. Locomotor skills include walking, running, hopping, jumping, skipping and galloping.
mainstreamed classrooms. Educational idea that a child with special needs should be placed into a regular classroom as much as possible and a special education classroom as little as possible, making the student part of the community and less isolated.
manifestation of disability. Behavior that is related to an individual’s disability (i.e. difficulty staying on task and not taking appropriate materials to class as well as not treating peers and teachers with respect are all manifestations of depression and ADHD)
medically inspired efforts. In the context of adapted physical education, historical pattern of practitioners to remediate the condition or disability of individuals toward normalcy.
minority. Differentiation based on one or more observable human characteristics, including ethnicity, race, gender, wealth or sexual orientation, unique ability or disability.
modification. Adaptations that address the needs of the student by fundamentally altering the performance outcome. Modification may also apply to changing equipment and tasks to increase opportunity for students to succeed.
motor development. The study of change in movement behaviors and motor skills across the life span.
motor learning. The study of change in a person’s ability to perform a motor skill.
motor patterns. See “movement patterns”
motor skills. A skill that requires voluntary body and/or limb movement to achieve its goal. A skill where the primary determinant of success is the movement component itself. Physical activity that is directed toward a specific function or goal. The term may be used to refer to one discrete skill (e.g., throwing) or a more general ability to perform physical skills competently as in a set or combination of motor skills needed to perform an activity or sport.
movement patterns. An organized series of related physical / psychomotor movements.
obesity and overweight, obesity-related conditions. Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. The terms also identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of certain diseases and other health problems. Research has shown that as weight increases to reach the levels referred to as “overweight” and “obesity,” the risks for the following conditions also increases: Coronary heart disease; type 2 diabetes; cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon); hypertension; high blood pressure); dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides); stroke; liver and gallbladder disease; sleep apnea and respiratory problems; osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint); gynecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility).
occupational therapy. Promotes participation in school activities by removing barriers and developing skills including fine motor, sensory processing, social-emotional and perceptual skills. The outcome of therapy is increased independence in the school environment. Occupational therapy is a related service.
perceptual-motor disabilities. Perceptual-motor disabilities include a wide range of learning difficulties. Auditory learning disabilities make it hard to differentiate between similar spoken words, to store what has been heard in long-term memory, to follow oral directions, and to comprehend abstract reasoning in a lecture. Visual learning disabilities can cause problems in discriminating between similar letters, in copying shapes and figures, using computerized answer sheets, making sense of graphs and charts, lining up numbers in math problems, and taking notes from the board or an overhead. Spatio-motor disabilities can make it difficult for students to orient themselves to a printed page, to copy a sequence of actions (as in a lab procedure), to write legibly, or to handle lab equipment. Perceptual disabilities can affect students’ social skills, making it difficult for some students to read communication cues, such as body language, facial expression, and tone of voice. Students who have problems with sequential thinking are likely to have trouble with tasks which must be done in a very linear fashion. Computer programming might prove especially difficult for such a student; math calculations may also be a problem. Following a detailed line of thought in a textbook or a lecture could also be frustrating. Students who have problems with simultaneous thinking tend to have problems putting things together and integrating knowledge into a larger picture. For instance, synthesizing specific ideas into a thesis statement for a composition might be difficult for students with perceptual-motor disabilities.
physical activity. Bodily movement of any type and may include recreational, fitness, and sport activities such as jumping rope, playing soccer and lifting weights, as well as daily activities such as walking to the store, taking the stairs or raking leaves. Health benefits similar to those received during a physical education class are possible during periods of physical activity when the participant is active at an intensity that increases heart rate and produces heavier than normal breathing
physical education. A planned, sequential PK-12 curriculum that provides cognitive content and learning experiences in a variety of activity areas such as basic movement skills; physical fitness; rhythms and dance; games; team, dual, and individual sports; tumbling and gymnastics; and aquatics. Quality physical education should promote, through a variety of planned physical activities, each student’s optimum physical, mental, emotional and social development, using a well-defined curriculum, and offering the best opportunity to teach all children the skills and knowledge needed to establish and sustain an active lifestyle. Physical activity is crucial to the development and maintenance of good health. The goal of physical education is to develop physically educated individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity. The physically educated person is defined as one who has learned the skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities; knows the implications of and benefits from involvement in physical activities; participates regularly in physical activity; is physically fit; and values physical activity and its contribution to a healthful lifestyle
physical fitness. Physical fitness can have several meanings. In the context of physical education, health-related fitness is generally the goal. The other common categories of physical fitness are also defined below. Health-related physical fitness: Health related fitness focuses on optimum health and prevents the onset of disease and problems associated with inactivity. Maintaining an appropriate level of health related fitness allows a person to meet emergencies; reduce the risk of disease and injury; work efficiently; participate and enjoy physical activity (sports, recreation, leisure); and look one’s physical best. Physical fitness should be the result of the balance of activities that are provided in the physical education programs at school and continued by the family and in other community activities outside of school. The health-related components of fitness are muscular strength; muscular endurance; cardiovascular endurance; flexibility; body composition. Skill-related physical fitness: Those components of physical fitness that relate to an enhanced performance in sports: agility, balance, coordination, power, speed, and reaction time. Sport-related physical fitness: see “skill-related physical fitness.” Trade-related or occupational fitness: specific qualities and levels of physical fitness required by workers on physical jobs or trades to ensure safety, productivity and performance of work activities. Construction workers, for example, require strength, flexibility and endurance sufficient to lift heavy materials, fit into limited workspaces and perform under physical strain.
physical health. A good body health, which is healthy because of regular physical activity (exercise), good nutrition, and adequate rest. Another term for physical health is physical wellbeing, defined as something a person can achieve by developing all health-related components of his/her lifestyle including proper nutrition, bodyweight management, abstaining from drug abuse, avoiding alcohol abuse, responsible sexual behavior (sexual health), hygiene, and adequate sleep. Considered a dimension of overall health in combination with emotional, intellectual and social health.
physical therapy. Enhances general gross motor development, posture, balance, and functional mobility. Physical therapy is a related service.
Planning and Placement Team (PPT). A team or committee of people whose responsibility is to study all aspects of the student’s performance and needs and develop a plan to address them. The PPT includes parents and when appropriate, the student; at least one regular educator if the child is or may be placed in regular education; at least one special educator; district representative who is knowledgeable of general education curriculum and can allocate resources; someone who can interpret evaluations; and others who have knowledge or expertise related to the child.
postsecondary. After high school.
psychomotor development. Progressive acquisition of skills involving both mental and motor activities.
public school environment. See school environment.
Quality Physical Education Program. Components of a Quality Physical Education Program recommended by the Connecticut State Department of Education and best practice. Opportunity to Learn: Instructional periods totaling 150 minutes per week (elementary) and 225 minutes per week (middle and secondary school) during the school day for the entire school year. Qualified physical education specialist providing a developmentally appropriate program. Teacher-to-pupil ratio no greater than 1:25 for optimal instruction. Adequate and safe equipment and facilities. A comprehensive curriculum that reflects national/state physical education standards. Appropriate facilities, equipment and materials. Meaningful content. Instruction in a variety of motor skills that are designed to enhance the physical, mental, and social/emotional development of every child. Fitness education and assessment (e.g., Third Generation Physical Fitness Assessment, Connecticut State Department of Education) to help children understand, improve, and/or maintain their physical well-being. Development of cognitive concepts about motor skill and fitness. Opportunities to improve their emerging social and cooperative skills and gain a multicultural perspective. Promotion of ongoing appropriate physical activity throughout life. Appropriate Instruction. Full inclusion of all students. Maximum practice opportunities for class activities. Well-designed lessons that facilitate student learning. Out-of-school assignments that support learning and practice. No use or withholding of physical activity as punishment. Regular assessment to monitor and reinforce student learning. Reasonable accommodations. One aim of the Americans with Disabilities Act was to make educational institutions more accessible for the disabled. This aim covers “reasonable accommodations” such as modification of application and testing protocols and environments; allowing students to tape-record or videotape lectures and classes; modification of class schedules and extra time allotted between classes; notetakers, interpreters, and readers; specialized computer equipment; special education; accommodation also includes physical changes to an educational institution’s buildings, including installing hardware for accessibility and safety, proximal parking, ramps, curbs and elevators, and widened doorways.
recess. The Connecticut State Board of Education endorses the following policy regarding recess: All elementary school students shall have at least 20 minutes a day of supervised recess, preferably outdoors, during which schools should encourage moderate to vigorous physical activity and provide space, equipment and an environment that is conducive to safe and enjoyable activity. Districts shall ensure that students with special physical and cognitive needs have equal physical activity opportunities, with appropriate assistance and services. Districts shall discourage extended periods (i.e., periods of two or more hours) of inactivity. When activities, such as mandatory schoolwide testing, make it necessary for students to remain indoors for long periods of time, schools shall give students periodic breaks during which they are encouraged to get up from their chairs and be moderately active. Districts shall prohibit withholding of recess or the use of exercise as punishment, and shall develop alternative practices for promoting appropriate behavior.
related service, related service provider. Related services are provided so the individual with disabilities can benefit from instruction. The primary function of related services personnel is to assure that the individual’s educational goals on the Individual Education Plan (IEP) can be met. The following are related service personnel: occupational therapist; physical therapist; recreation therapist; speech and language therapist.
school age. Old enough to attend school. The IDEA defines school age as 3 to 21 years.
school environment. Includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the psychosocial climate and culture of the school. Factors that influence the physical environment include the school building and the area surrounding it, biological or chemical agents, and physical conditions such as temperature, noise and lighting. The psychological environment includes the physical, emotional and social conditions that affect the well-being of students and staff.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Civil rights law that provides that no otherwise qualified individual with a disability, solely by reason of that disability, be excluded form participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. An important intent of section 504 is to ensure that individuals with a disability receive intended benefits of all educational programs and extracurricular activities.
self-contained classroom. Compared to standard classrooms with a large number of peers, self-contained classrooms are typically smaller settings with a fewer number of students. Created to help foster enhanced support for students with special needs or specific difficulties, self-contained rooms are generally comprised of ten or fewer students with unique learning needs who are most commonly instructed by a special education teacher.
social health. In the individual context, how well a person interacts and deals with these situations. Individual response to other people’s reactions to the individual. How well one interacts with social institutions and whether one conforms to accepted societal morals and norms. The degree of social skill that a person develops or acquires as they grow and matured will affect how well they are able to adjust to the norms of society. Social health for the individual is also indicated by looking at a person’s relationships with others, degree with which a person merges with others and is able to cooperate and work together with others in society, stress management, resistance to illness and speed of recovery.
special education. Special education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals, and institutions, and in other settings; and instruction in physical education
students with disabilities. The term “student with a disability” means a student with mental retardation, a hearing impairment (including deafness), speech or language impairment, a visual impairment (including blindness), a serious emotional disturbance (referred to as “emotional disturbance”), an orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, another health impairment, a specific learning disability, deaf-blindness, or multiple disabilities; and who by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
students with special needs. Refers to students who are marginalized in physical education, students whose cultural and religious practices require special consideration, English learners, students with long-term and short-term medical needs, at-risk learners, advanced learners, and students with disabilities.
supplementary aids and services. Aids, services and other supports that are provided in general education classes, other education-related settings, in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable student with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate according to the IDEA (34 CFR 300, 42).
therapeutic recreation. Increases access to and participation in community based recreational programs. Therapeutic recreation is a related service.
unique learning needs. Wide range of individual learning characteristics, including strengths as well as difficulties.
vigorous physical activity. Vigorous-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained, rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend while, for example, jogging, participating in high-impact aerobic dancing, swimming continuous laps, or bicycling uphill. Vigorous-intensity physical activity may be intense enough to result in a significant increase in heart and respiration rate.